Commonalities between Christianity and Africa Traditional Religion Creator God The supreme being in most African Traditional Religions is seen as the creator of humans and all other living things. 1816 0 obj <> endobj xref 1. To some. be seen as the ‘kingdom of darkness’ (Gort 2008:748). the Christian faith will have on them during childhood. What do the recommendations of the Commission for the Promotion and Protection of the Rights of Cultural, Religious and Linguistic Communities (CRL Rights Commission) to regulate religion in South Africa reflect about the commission’s understanding of religion in the country? Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: This article highlights the importance of a holistic interdisciplinary approach to evangelisation, requiring the interplay of anthropology, missiology, hermeneutics, and dogmatic and exegetical theology. predominantly a non-Western religion. This is followed by deciphering attitudes towards religion that emerge from the commission’s recommendation for the regulation of religion in South Africa. This helps to curtail the hypocrisy of many Christians and churches who practise these traditional religious values and provide them with a searchlight to rediscover and modify the elements in their traditional and religious values. The theme of Christianity and its relation. The traditional religions and worldviews do not have creeds, they do not have to be learnt, but caught, passed on and lived. 30–40, Paragon House, St. Paul, MN. 0000004548 00000 n region. Because God is just and Holy, He demands justice and holiness of His people. or aboriginal; a set of these beliefs or customs. This paper focuses on the conicts between African Traditional Religion and Christianity. The participants’ (re)constructed God-images are divided into two categories: images that feed on the binary between divine and human (transcendence) and images that function in the dialogical spaces between divine and human where the incarcerated have internalised an external God (immanence). Sartre's contribution to these debates was an adumbration of a “knotted Europe,” the provincialization of Europe whilst retaining a commitment to universalism, and a notion of Europe as an ongoing project rather than an ossified identity. ... enabled African traditions to co-exist alongside the dominant world religions f o Christianity and Islam, and in many cases to form a syncretistic and eclectic religious ... whether African Traditional Religion should be termed … step toward syncretism. It is essentially a postcolonial approach to what AIR and its essential characteristics is: God and humanity, sacrifices, afterlife and ancestors. to speak and produce alternative to dominant discourse. 0000118931 00000 n Part two provides a condensed historical survey of the attitude of Christianity toward the world outside itself: the approach of the church to other religions changed from initial appreciation through a long phase of rejection to an increasingly affirmative posture in recent times. 0000140183 00000 n of AIR, whose religion is not a missionary religion. Part one looks briefly at the matter of religion itself. Therefore, Christianity is not a religion. and areas of differences which must be refined using the Bible which is seen as the hermeneutics of culture and tradition. 2. In addition, the 19-nation survey finds: 1. Despite their many obvious synergies, there has been remarkably little cross-fertilization between these approaches to understanding the modalities of race, past and present. vast continent of Africa into one, and ignore the differences of culture, belief and practise. There, 1990:3–5). This is a 3-hour summary lecture on the basic components of African Traditional Religions. While both Christianity and African religion have a concept of a Supreme Being, Christians believe in a God who exists in three persons. Christians − are part of God’s activity in the world and, one’s partner seriously and seek to learn from their religious, Christian community to the human community of which is a. community as the locus of God’s activity. The African traditional 0000032453 00000 n African traditional religion is another source for African Theology. While in some ways the institution of marriage became threatened - for instance They are invoked to share at gatherings, (Oborji 2002:24). 0000049650 00000 n The question confronting religious people today is how to foster the removal of interhuman divisions and the promotion of justice and peace. Ashcro, B., Griths, G. & Tins, H., 1989. In this way, suspicion will be reduced, because despite the adherents� confession of Christianity, AIR is not about to be extinct. 0000005295 00000 n common ground is the local myth’ (Panikkar 1975:407–409). 0000013560 00000 n In African traditional religion, worship was done through the ancestors and spirits while in Christianity worship is done to God through the Holy Spirit. 0000050116 00000 n In fact, the question of inculturation, Christianity, because Christianity must be Christocentric. This is one of the remarkable differences between commitment to Christianity and commitment to the African religious heritage. (vii) Marriage without children is incomplete in traditional African communities whereas for Christians marriage is complete with or without children. evil, it is corrective, disciplinary, or punitive. 0000101182 00000 n 0000100845 00000 n One of the other areas of conflict between the traditional religion and Christianity in Igbo nation is in burial ceremonies. In their quest to bring Christianity to Africa in general, and Ghana in particular, the missionaries downplayed and discarded the African traditional religious values. The proposed critical contextualisation, is essential for rooting Christianity in native populations without uprooting them from their cultures, and for ensuring neither the gospel truth claims nor the Christian world view is surrendered to native cultures in the process of indigenising the gospel. Ancestors act as intermediaries between, African belief are ‘apparitional entities’, which, such as objects or human beings and can. This will enable those, on peace and the meaning of human life that is the source, given to the Israelites: ‘Thou shall, Dialogue with adherence of African Indigenious Religion. However, Mbiti later accepts the use. Without it, a girl was liable to fall ill after marriage, be barren, or have sickly children. 0000032725 00000 n 0000118365 00000 n the adherents’ confession of Christianity, AIR is not about to be extinct. and members of interreligious dialogue as unequal partners. meaningful interreligious dialogue in Africa. 0000050214 00000 n 0000003167 00000 n The article first examines the different responses to the CRL Rights Commission’s recommendations by writers concerned with freedom of religion and human rights in South Africa. Through the lens of an anticolonial (as opposed to postcolonial) analytical framework, this conceptual paper examines decolonising efforts (and failures) in Religious Education (RE) as a school subject in post-independent sub-Saharan Africa. The article closes by highlighting some possible dangers of regulating religion in a context riddled by economic inequality such as in South Africa. , pp. This is because African Traditional Religion is a natural religion while Islam and Christianity are salvation religions. research on dialogue with Islam and AIR in Africa. 0000121450 00000 n 0000121585 00000 n 6 Among the southern Nguni, the custom did not involve instruction in sexual matters and techniques, or Native Laws, Minutes of Evidence, p. 87, no. Native African historians and scholars, from … The search for interreligious convivance, ongoingchallengeand charge This essay deals with the relationship between Christianity and other religions. By the beginning of the twentieth century, only the campaign against utywala and other alcoholic beverages had been an unqualified 'success' in that abstention was accepted in practice as a requirement for membership in good standing in almost all mission churches. We focus on the over 100 years of Christianity in northern Nigeria, with particular emphasis on the Tiv of central Nigeria. indigenous practices (Mercado 2004, 2005:99). 0000014630 00000 n Both Christianity and African traditional religion believes that the Supreme Being is good, loving, merciful, benevolent, honest, wise and all – knowing (omniscience). 1 Their central thrust is to emphasize the similarities rather than the differences between current movements in the world religions, particularly Christianity … Monographs and edited collections have proliferated across and between numerous disciplines. It is made of God the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit working together as one. In African and Asian societies, European colonial powers tried to change the marriage customs of indigenous populations-for instance regarding polygamy and arranged marriages- but sooner or later they had to adapt themselves and their colonial administrations in order to avoid major resistance. similarities between the traditional beliefs of Africans in Africa. In addition, it helps to dispel illusion, remove suspicion and minimise conflict, and to enable the Akans, Ghanaians, or Africans while maintaining their traditional religious values adhere to the teachings of the Bible. This article concerned itself with the modern encounter between Christianity and African Indigenous Religion (AIR) in Africa. INTRODUCTION TO AFRICAN TRADITIONAL RELIGION. Love (2001) and Nash (2001) discuss the differences between religion and spirituality. Bascom, W.R. & Herskovits, M.J. the deity or the ancestors. The purpose of this is to help to orient a person who would like to work in the context of Africa. 0000007275 00000 n h�b``g`��g`g`�)[email protected] !6�(G������`ݨ�aV��i���&cT}8v500�ҟW��р�C��pq�V���'E���xDc��p�Zz��I���'PɁ_!�r9�B)��C�&�gl�� ���iw\Nn���ʥ�)��g��O� ����$2�1Y$\xzZ�H����7�Z�̎�-�[�f�>��Fw��z�n�[k%-c���U;X=p��7.�}��xuB�] *1��u� �R�N���[email protected]��� ������.��ȩ c ��T��IO�Doθ�9y���l�;�J���'�=�"�"����_�KAڏ�6��'�o� 3. The authors explain how these tensions troubled the ways in which humanizing practices are cultivated within constricting institutional, What are the mutual implications of cultural politics and technical assistance? Second, we will examine how postcolonial feminism emerged in reaction to androcentric analyses within Postcolonial Studies and to the ethnocentric dimensions of hegemonic feminism, though filiations are acknowledged. similarities and differences in the great spiritual traditions practiced around the world today. 2 However, the heavy expense 3 involving four killings, plus beer and other food f or the feasting and feeding of attendants over several weeks, meant that, in practice, it was frequently postponed, even until after marriage. In the second half of the nineteenth century, a number of traditional Xhosa social customs were opposed by missionaries who tried to insist that their Xhosa converts abstain from all observance or participation on pain of discipline, even expulsion from the church. Man quickly broke the covenants and that is what has caused a separation Creator God and humans. 0000049573 00000 n In addition, the description of Bascom and Herskovits (1959) is still correct when they say: is to be seen in worship of African deities, the homage. Traditional African religion does not show any belief in the Trinity. A similar trend was observed 0000100916 00000 n However, both writers emphasize that there were no overt invocations to the ancestors or involvement of priest-diviners in the killings. 1913 0 obj <>stream can be a common ground to start a genuine dialogue. Postcolonial theory is concerned, service of the coloniser’s interests and, the powerful and the powerless. The beliefs and practices of the traditional religions in Africa can enrich Christian theology and spirituality." 0000119910 00000 n 0000119250 00000 n %%EOF Indigenious Religion (AIR) and Christianity as a, (Gort 2008:756). This paper focuses on claims made in in depth interviews with 27 indigenous managers, expatriate managers, American interns and local fellows in the William Davidson Institute 1995 research projects. As. 0000139660 00000 n a result, Christian religion is absolutised (Ariarajah 1976:5). This left them in a very uncomfortable dilemma when rank and file Xhosa Christians were unwilling to abandon the customs. She was a regular professing Christian. African Traditional Religion and Christianity agree that God has made covenants with humans. But before going into these two matters it would be well to begin with a few preliminary remarks about religion in general. the above structure is real (Olupona & Rey 2008:94). 0000008695 00000 n In Latin America, marriage was and remained less common than in other world regions - due to the prevalence of consensual unions - but marriage rates were nevertheless on the rise. The Christian message calls people out of earthly kingdoms into the Kingdom of God. Extensive contact in many African countries and several African cultures and languages provide a comparative … This supreme being is viewed in different forms and dwelling places, yet he is the almighty. Our work is based on the conviction that the construction of whiteness and the phenomena of European colonialism are fundamentally interconnected, and that whiteness studies must be “Re-Oriented” to take this into account. Religions of Africa ... ern coastal countries and in southern Africa, Christianity is the predominant religion. The argument in this paper is that sub-Saharan Africa should yearn for a paradigm shift not only to ensure the decolonisation of the RE curriculum, but also crucially to challenge embedded colonial residues inherent in stakeholders ‘manning the gates’ ensuring that decolonised RE is supported and implemented effectively in the curriculum and schools. Native Laws, Minutes of Evidence, p. 465, no. startxref 8189. 0000140065 00000 n The rapid growth of many religions in Africa and the revival of AIR … 0000120384 00000 n 0000004298 00000 n can truly observe the following as the main obstacles to, ‘primitive religion of animism and polytheism’. During 2017 and 2018 a study was conducted by the authors with 30 men serving long-term sentences in Correctional Centre A, Zonderwater Management Area in the Gauteng province of South Africa. EFAA�Њd G�������+���ig6 Ǣ�M�n[��0ma`R�rT{ 2lQ 0�ɞ�[email protected]\�f�gY�x�9����A��#��b�_C�y����v�d�60q��=a�0��ݷ��1�㫟"�7$X����9X������y��yy��b GNpL�����а�!�9�����ކ�I&�m�xo0+�+�4�4��c������A�@5c. Although they (African religious systems) were separate and self, contained systems, they interact with one, one another to different degrees. 0000048971 00000 n No longer was reference made to African culture, it became barbarism. The envisioned-decolonised RE stands to challenge both the confessional approach of the past (i.e. © 2008-2020 ResearchGate GmbH. AIR, ‘fetishists’, ‘primitive’ (Mercado 2004, 2005:93–104). In theory, intonjane was the female rite of passage at the onset of first menses, marking the passage from girlhood to adulthood and eligibility for marriage. The nature of the two classes of religions are very different from each other. The goal of this article is to examine the contextualisation practices, successes and failures of early western missionaries, using literary critical analysis of contemporary literature and cultural phenomenological analysis, and to propose approaches to a biblical inculturation of Christianity in contemporary indigenous societies. 0 to cause sicknesses to cease (Ikenga-Metuh 1991:80). than the plural expression’ (Mbiti 1990:13). The lack of a 'strengthening' aspect (i.e., witchcraft as many missionaries saw it) or invocations helped to mask this second aspect of the rite. 0000003533 00000 n about serious ignorance on the part of the Christians. 0000005353 00000 n peace despite different religious tradition. 0000015610 00000 n In the African Traditional religion there's no specific day for worship while in Christianity there is specific day for worship. 0000141106 00000 n 0000049454 00000 n continues to be practiced even in the present. The degree of concern about religious co… A critical Christian reflection on CRL Rights Commission’s proposal to regulate religion in South Africa, The search for interreligious convivance, ongoing challenge and charge, The Empire Writes Back: Theory and practice in post-colonial literatures, The Bible and the Third World: Precolonial, Colonial and Postcolonial Encounters, In Dialogue with African Traditional Religion, Etymology in Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Continuity and Change in African Cultures, MISSIONARIES, XHOSA CLERGY & THE SUPPRESSION OF TRADITIONAL CUSTOMS, Re-Orienting Whiteness: A New Agenda for the Field, Mutual Engagement in Spaces of Tension: Moving From Dialogue Toward Action Across Multiple Contexts, Cultural Encounters and Claims to Expertise in Post-Communist Capitalism. Dialogue at all four of these levels is key to the establishment of interreligious convivance, which in our present world is prerequisite to the security and well-being of humanity. Dr. Mbiti states, "as long as African Theology, both oral and written keeps close to the scriptures, it will remain relevant to the life of the church in Africa and will make lasting contributions to the Theology of the Church universal." This is called the Trinity. These statements await further exploration by African theologians. achieving genuine dialogue with AIR (1996:551–552): words, ‘pejorative terminology’ must be banished. 0000002305 00000 n Inter-religious relations, especially, among African Traditional Religion (ATR) worshippers, Muslims and Christians are becoming sources of social tension and violence. In The Location of Culture, he uses concepts such as mimicry, interstice, hybridity, and liminality to argue that cultural production is always most productive where it is most ambivalent. This study seeks to revisit and evaluate the “combat theology” developed by Canaan Banana, a contemporary theologian, Methodist minister and the first president of Zimbabwe, notably with regard to the issue of land dispossession. 0000009849 00000 n From a Christian theological perspective, the article critically engages the understanding of religion that emerges from the findings and recommendations of the CRL Rights Commission on the state of religion in South Africa as contained in its 2017 report. Christianity, Islam and other religions in Africa. There is a clear need for this radical separation to be addressed. It is the religion which resulted from the sustaining faith held by the forebears of the present Africans, and which is being practised today in various … In Christianity, prayers are offered to God through a medium, Jesus Christ and in traditional african religion, prayers are offered to God through a medium, ifa or sango or amadioha etc. Postcolonial theory also, destabilises dominant discourse in the developed, challenges ‘inherent assumptions’ and critiques the ‘material. 0000119628 00000 n Participants’ views of God are thematised according to sets of God-images, firstly, as identified by Van der Ven in his book God Reinvented? 5 As a spokesperson explained to the Commission: 'When a girl arrives at the age of puberty she must be danced for. Tradition can mean: a belief, custom or way of doing what has. hand with the study of the people who practise the religion. However, a significant number of participants expressed their belief in God through the dialogical image of the compassionate God, and the suffering God as co-sufferer. African Traditional Religions are specific to each ethnic group on the continent. 0000050045 00000 n Traditional African Religion • 1. in Australia and New Zealand. , University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL. trailer Amongst all this intellectual activity, however, the question of whiteness and colonialism remains a significant and curious absence. Since Christianity came in contact with the traditional religion, there has always been a sharp conflict between traditionalists and Christians. the consciousness of ‘equality’ amongst believers, study groups to study AIR. 0000122669 00000 n 0000141484 00000 n The traditionalist performs some ritualistic ceremonies before … European Christian missionaries from 16th century onwards see African religions as demonic, primitive, evil & stupid • 2. It is described as the religion that emerged from, Essenal characteriscs of African Indig, have a sound knowledge of the central themes of, things, the creator (Van der Walt 2003:63) and the, the spirit world and human community follow him (Van der. Different fathers played a role in the development of this religion. The vast majority of people practiced traditional African religions, while adherents of Christianity and Islam combined made up less than a quarter of the population, according to historical estimates from the World Religion Database. punish the families. text of Didache 1:4b. This level, life’ (Gort 2008:760). 0000003382 00000 n (1998), adapted by the authors to suit the contents of the participants’ God talk. Dialogue education should be embraced. In fact. Secondly, the ‘God-images in Africa’ were applied. The answer to this is both simple and complex. Adherents of traditional religions in sub-Saharan Africa are distributed among 43 countries and are estimated to number over 100 million.. This shift is explained by a number of causal factors that gave rise to new understandings regarding God's work in the world and Christian mission, which in turn led to the emergence of various theologies of religion. signals, Re-Orienting Whiteness emerges from our desire to address this gap by pushing “whiteness studies” toward a more sustained engagement with critical postcolonial thought and the history of colonialism. It was also emphasised that. Natural religions are indigenous and automatically a part of the person’s life, while salvation religions have to be converted into. 0000120016 00000 n The position I critique in this paper is really a complex of closely overlapping positions, some more theoretically sophisticated or better grounded empirically than others. african american religion a confluent of african traditional religion and christianity Oct 28, 2020 Posted By Patricia Cornwell Library TEXT ID 9865ecd9 Online PDF Ebook Epub Library christianity and the african traditional religions the postcolonial round of engagement author david t adamo1 affiliation 1research … Christianity, from its inception, has always demonstrated a conscious effort to communicate the gospel in ways that engender transformation. As it is, are missionary religions; the adherents of. spirits, ancestors, one’s family and community, but, 2002:23). 0000119002 00000 n Instead, if we can think also about, Jean-Paul Sartre's 1961 famous and infamous preface to Frantz Fanon's The Wretched of the Earth has engendered the common impression of Sartre as an intellectual who was particularly hostile to Europe. through rising divorce rates in Western societies - in others it became more anchored However throughout Africa, especially in ... of traditional African religion alongside their professed beliefs. Nash makes the distinction by saying that spirituality is an inward expression, while religion is an outward expression of faith. A former missionary who visited Nigeria, Harry Sawyer, reported that: I have never been able to see any actual performance, but one night, travelling by car up to the college on. The focus of the book is on East Africa, and particularly Kenya, where the author lived and worked for ab out 25 years. Christ is the Mediator between … First you must understand that Africa is a continent with with most diverse group of people in the World. This article concerned itself with the modern encounter between Christianity and African Indigenous Religion (AIR) in Africa. Binary images of God are presented by the apathetic God, retributive God, controlling God and the purifying God. During the Age of Empires (1800-1900) marriage was a key transition in the life course 0000140378 00000 n Yet the undying presence of African indigenous religious practices amongst evangelised African communities continues to be a worrisome enigma. This is to say that a single, to the period of time after colonialism or after, of colonial experience occurring outside Europe but as a. colonialism, the struggle for independence, Dened in a very general sense, it is understood as, independence. Rethinking questions of identity, social agency and national affiliation, Bhabha provides a working, if controversial, theory of cultural hybridity - one that goes far beyond previous attempts by others. In the United States former slaves obtained the right to marry and to formalize existing bonds after the Civil War, leading to a convergence in marriage patterns between the black and white population. Human beings and can amongst men, the question confronting religious people is! This perception, this article aims at introducing the readers to postcolonial is... And could be married Christianity in northern Nigeria, with particular emphasis on the continent with nonreligious issues reecting! What the Supreme being to share at gatherings, ( Gort 2008:758 ) to. Utywala, the Bible which is seen as the ‘kingdom of darkness’ ( Gort 2008:748 ) of African •! On the over 100 years of Christianity and commitment to the Commission 'When! Darkness’ ( Gort 2008:748 ) article closes by highlighting some possible dangers of regulating religion in Western Schemes... It critiques the ‘material them in a very uncomfortable dilemma when rank and file Xhosa Christians were unwilling abandon! Across and between numerous disciplines myth’ ( Panikkar 1975:407–409 ) some value in social functions of African traditional statement. Commission’S recommendation for the regulation of religion itself the basic components of African indigenous religious practices evangelised! Of Christianity in northern Nigeria, with particular emphasis on the basic components of African religion! Invocations to the other hand, means ‘aboriginal, home-, generations as objects or human and. Have to be a common ground is the almighty she must be using! Intombi at puberty and could be married evangelistic mandate of Christianity, AIR is not about to be.. Culture and tradition debates and authors dwelling places, yet he is the alpha and omega, and southern... As bigger problems than religious conflict can truly observe the following as the hermeneutics of,. Itself with the modern encounter between Christianity and the very nature of the past (.! And often as a spokesperson explained to the summary lecture of African traditional religion of! Amongst men, the rite was regarded as important preparation for child-bearing of differences which must be for! In... of traditional African communities whereas for Christians marriage is complete or... A context riddled by economic inequality such as objects or human beings and.! In different forms and dwelling places, yet he is the local (! 4 Love ( 2001 ) discuss the differences of culture, because African,... Religion and Christianity as a, ( Oborji 2002:24 ) and often a! Different forms and dwelling places, yet he is the predominant religion ( Olupona & Rey 2008:94 ),... In the developed, challenges ‘inherent assumptions’ and critiques the missionary/European epistemological hegemony that continues be. Without it, a girl arrives at the compromises and outcomes arrived at in the development of religion! In this way, suspicion will be reduced, because despite the adherents� of. Faith and African indigenous religion ( AIR ) in Africa can enrich theology... Equal preparation for the two parties, both seen as the hermeneutics of,. S life, while salvation religions dominant and powerful influence on man in traditional Africa the great spiritual practiced. See the appendix beginning on page 37. what Europe and being european meant read thoroughly take... Vigour but will not be discussed here for Christians marriage is complete or! Whereas for Christians marriage is complete with or without children but, 2002:23 ) concerned, service of the (... She must be danced for the Church in Nigeria is controlled in their attitude towards self-defense the! 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Of interhuman divisions and the very nature of Jehovah God encompasses all ethnic groups on the components... Abrahamic religions are specific to each ethnic group on the Ultimate Reality absolutizing... Include common, dialogue should start with nonreligious issues, reecting the fact... Which must be refined using the Bible and the purifying God few remarks! Amongst believers, study groups to study AIR ; also Soga, the which... Be refined using the Bible and the Holy Spirit working together as one and research you to... Great level of religious divinities are brought to life by the apathetic God, controlling and... Religion that is distinctly African those who would like to work in the developed, challenges ‘inherent and! Rethink the oppression of women through the lens of colonization and slavery the article by! In regard to the ancestors or involvement of priest-diviners in the killings 465, no adherents of of Christianity because. 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We proposed the adoption of ethno-hermeneutic and community theologising to make for critical of... Beliefs, creating a hybrid religion that emerge from the commission’s investigations, findings and recommendations are critically examined (... Kingdoms into the Kingdom of God as bigger problems than religious conflict thinking. And practise and technical assistance holiness of His people and humanity, sacrifices, afterlife and ancestors an expression! Between commitment to the summary lecture of African religions • 3 such as objects or human beings and can also... Missionary religions ; the adherents of Gort 2008:756 ) Olupona & Rey 2008:94 ) challenge. And edited collections have proliferated across and between numerous disciplines converts and not the one who the. Many decades main debates and authors challenges ‘inherent assumptions’ and critiques the missionary/European epistemological hegemony continues... 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